Why would you want to sign a widget?

For the same reasons why you would sign a document or an email if you're GNUPG savvy. To say it comes from you and as an added bonus to show that the files (contents) have their integrity intact (i.e. they have not been tampered with!).

The bigger idea with signatures is that they will be used to control trust in the use of device APIs.

If you want your widget to be distributed by a major operator, you need to have them sign your widget in order to approve of it. If later the operator has found your Widget to be malicious, widget signatures can be revoked using OCSP verification.

How does it work

  1. You have a Widget package with a list of files
  2. Each file gets hashed, e.g. sha256sum *
  3. Those filenames and hashes are put in a manifest and again all hashed, then signed with a private key

For some godforsaken reason we are using XML Signatures, however I suggest you read Java's jarsigner man page. Ultimately we're doing everything that jarsigner is doing, but using very complex and fragile W3C XML suite of technologies. Whoops.

Signing a widget with xmlsec1

If you prefer a user interface to signing a widget you should instead look at the LiMo supported BONDI SDK and http://bondisdk.limofoundation.org/docs/Signing_a_Web_Widget/, instead of the following textual intercourse:

hendry@x61 ~$ cd /tmp
hendry@x61 tmp$ git clone git://git.webvm.net/wgtqa
Initialized empty Git repository in /tmp/wgtqa/.git/
remote: Counting objects: 2629, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (2056/2056), done.
remote: Total 2629 (delta 1539), reused 586 (delta 235)
Receiving objects: 100% (2629/2629), 694.33 KiB | 220 KiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (1539/1539), done.
hendry@x61 tmp$ cd wgtqa/xmldsig/
hendry@x61 xmldsig$ ls
dsakey.p12  keys      rsakey.p12           sign-widget.sh       validate-widget-signature.sh
helloworld  Makefile  signing-template.sh  strip-signatures.sh  xmldsig.rnc
hendry@x61 xmldsig$ make sign
rm -f helloworld.wgt
rm -f example*
zip -jr helloworld.wgt helloworld/
  adding: index.html (deflated 12%)
  adding: config.xml (deflated 15%)
./sign-widget.sh --pkcs12 /tmp/wgtqa/xmldsig/rsakey.p12 --pwd secret helloworld.wgt
Key type rsa
Archive:  helloworld.wgt
  inflating: /tmp/.6129/helloworld/index.html
  inflating: /tmp/.6129/helloworld/config.xml
Do you wish to add author-signature.xml?y
Do you wish to add signature1.xml?y
Do you wish to add signature2.xml?n
  adding: index.html (deflated 12%)
  adding: author-signature.xml (deflated 50%)
  adding: signature1.xml (deflated 52%)
  adding: config.xml (deflated 15%)
Signed /tmp/wgtqa/xmldsig/helloworld.wgt
hendry@x61 xmldsig

For purposes of a demonstration I've signed the widget twice, once as an author author-signature.xml and once as a distributor signature1.xml, using the same rsakey.p12.

Typically you would only sign it once in the capacity of just an author or just a distributor, with your own key. To generate your own self-signed key look at the example.p12 target in the Makefile.

Verifying or validating a widget

Since we are using test self-signed keys and not chaining to a root, we are strictly speaking not verifying a widget, we are validating its signatures instead.

If you run make validate you'll should see something like:

./validate-widget-signature.sh --pkcs12 /tmp/wgtqa/xmldsig/rsakey.p12 --pwd secret helloworld.wgt
Archive:  helloworld.wgt
  inflating: /tmp/.13485/index.html
  inflating: /tmp/.13485/author-signature.xml
  inflating: /tmp/.13485/signature1.xml
  inflating: /tmp/.13485/config.xml
./author-signature.xml
Signature method RSA
if xmlsec1 verify --pkcs12 /tmp/wgtqa/xmldsig/rsakey.p12 --pwd secret ./author-signature.xml
func=xmlSecOpenSSLX509StoreVerify:file=x509vfy.c:line=360:obj=x509-store:subj=X509_verify_cert:error=4:crypto library function failed:subj=/C=GB/ST=Surrey/L=Guildford/CN=test.webvm.net;err=18;msg=self signed certificate
func=xmlSecOpenSSLX509StoreVerify:file=x509vfy.c:line=408:obj=x509-store:subj=unknown:error=71:certificate verification failed:err=18;msg=self signed certificate
OK
SignedInfo References (ok/all): 3/3
Manifests References (ok/all): 0/0
VALID SIGNATURE: ./author-signature.xml
dsp:Identifier
9f53f8e6-acf0-11de-aa47-0016d3ccf4f1

./signature1.xml
Signature method RSA
if xmlsec1 verify --pkcs12 /tmp/wgtqa/xmldsig/rsakey.p12 --pwd secret ./signature1.xml
func=xmlSecOpenSSLX509StoreVerify:file=x509vfy.c:line=360:obj=x509-store:subj=X509_verify_cert:error=4:crypto library function failed:subj=/C=GB/ST=Surrey/L=Guildford/CN=test.webvm.net;err=18;msg=self signed certificate
func=xmlSecOpenSSLX509StoreVerify:file=x509vfy.c:line=408:obj=x509-store:subj=unknown:error=71:certificate verification failed:err=18;msg=self signed certificate
OK
SignedInfo References (ok/all): 4/4
Manifests References (ok/all): 0/0
VALID SIGNATURE: ./signature1.xml
dsp:Identifier
a129383e-acf0-11de-b067-0016d3ccf4f1

http://git.webvm.net/?p=wgtqa;a=blob;f=xmldsig/validate-widget-signature.sh validates the widget in one of two ways. It can try validate the SignatureValue using a key you provide, e.g. --pkcs12 /tmp/wgtqa/xmldsig/rsakey.p12 in this case.

Or it can try extract the public key from the X509Certificate which can get embedded within the signature.

So in practice a widget verification would be:

  1. Extracting out the public key from the Keyinfo-X509Data-X509Certificate part
  2. Checking the hashed widget contents against each referenced resources (SignedInfo)
  3. Canonicalising that SignedInfo and then using that public key to check the SignatureValue
  4. Then verifying the key is correctly chained up to a root certificate you trust

In fact I have a validation Web service that does the first 3 steps at http://test.webvm.net/

Wait, there's more

What new element http://www.w3.org/TR/widgets-digsig introduces to XML digital signature, is the SignatureProperty identifier which lies typically inside a <Object Id="prop"> element. This has to be unique and in my scripts I simply call a uuid generator.

So that's basically it. A widget can contain a single author signature and many several distributor signatures. The signatures are generated the same way with a:

  1. SignedInfo section which is the manifest, filenames and hashes
  2. KeyInfo - any details of the key
  3. Object bit, for identifying the signature itself (btw this gets hashed too in the SignedInfo as URI="#prop"!)

I've modified a RelaxNG schema for Widget digital signatures, so you too can check the signature is correctly structured.

How do I check my widget runtime (WRT) supports signatures?

The spec stipulates that you must be notified if your widget is signed, self-signed or unsigned, on a widget runtime (WRT) claiming to support signatures.

So you could run these tests from the Widgets 1.0: Test Suite for Digital Signature, to see how well your WRT performs.

If you widget runtime fails a test, you should report the bug! Thank you!

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