Most Apache webservers are configured to negotiate content-type as latin-1. Your perfectly formed XHTML with UTF-8 will get a error like:

Character Encoding mismatch!

The character encoding specified in the HTTP header (iso-8859-1) is different from the value in the XML declaration (utf-8).

from http://validator.w3.org/ As a user, you can fix this by adding:

AddType text/html;charset=UTF-8 html

to your .htaccess file. Here is an example of an XHTML 1.1 strict head:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en-gb">

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