Terraform vs Cloudformation

Terraform or Cloudformation for managing AWS infrastructure?

Published: Wednesday, Apr 19, 2023 Last modified: Sunday, Jun 9, 2024

I have issues with Terraform, but I didn’t make clear why I prefer Cloudformation.

Terraform Cloudformation
Cloud agnostic Oversold due to differences with providers AWS only
Modules Often misunderstood but far easier to use There are modules and “Transforms” though are not easy to use
Toolchain Great ecosystem of “shift left” tooling AWS tooling only works once infrastructure created
Language refactorability HCL has some imperative constructs & offers alternate interfaces/abstractions YAML describes the end state, i.e. solely declarative
Native State managed externally with lots of polling “stacks” best maintain state & knows to wait without API retries
Documentation AWS Provider is a great reference, e.g. S3 AWS’s is typically generated and misses notes, S3


Terraform is particularly painful to provision Serverless functions due to the role, permissions, the “aws_iam_role_policy_attachment”, s3 bucket and other aspects like Cloudwatch and sns topics. A lot of boilerplate and not easy to get right for Terraform to deploy lambda.

AWS Severless Application Model (SAM), a Cloudformation “Transform” is much easier to use for deploying Serverless functions.

Toolchain: Shift left

Terraform has tooling to detect when declarations might violate security / organisational policies before it’s applied.

Terraform’s key plan and apply workflow is a good way to see the impact (including cost!) of changes before you apply. This makes it much easier to review infrastructure changes.

Cloudformation doesn’t have Terraform’s workflow and the AWS compliance tooling like AWS config only works once you’ve applied the changes. To catch issues is to carefully monitor your environments “path to production”, where impact of changes are tracked (via tags?) from dev to staging to production. AWS has a whole suite of Governance / security tools like GuardDuty, Billing, Cloudtrail, Config which are all need knowledge and experience to effectively use.

The future of Cloudformation

AWS’s Cloud Development Kit (CDK) is an imperative language that compiles to Cloudformation. However it has teething issues:

Learning CDK is a complete disaster. Anyone who thinks this is solution for developers is fooling themselves.

— Darren Shepherd (@ibuildthecloud) March 29, 2023

With CDK you can develop using any language of your choice as long as that language is Typescript.

— Darren Shepherd (@ibuildthecloud) March 30, 2023

The comparison between CF and TF is not really technical IMHO. TF + TF cloud is the clear winner in my mind. It’s borb from users just trying to get crap done and reflects that’s. Everything about CF and CDK is utter crap, but it’s AWS native. People don’t use AWS at this 1/2

— Darren Shepherd (@ibuildthecloud) April 20, 2023


The choice between Terraform and Cloudformation is not a clear cut one. For larger teams, Terraform’s “shift left”, flexibility and “blast radius” is industry proven. For smaller perhaps more knowledgable teams, Cloudformation’s simplicity and declarative nature is a good fit, depending on the use case.